Thursday, February 11, 2016

Australia 4. An excursion in New South Wales

Eastern New South Wales is a land of gentle, rolling mountains and coastal
plains covered in green forest.
Hakea multilineata is a spectacular member of the Proteaceae.
After several weeks in Western Australia, I flew to Canberra, Australia's capital, to visit my old friend from Papua New Guinea, Heinar Streimann.  Heinar at this time was the resident expert on bryophytes at the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra.  We decided to "go bush" for old times sake, and the surrounding state of New South Wales has plenty to offer.   The eastern part of New South Wales prevents quite a contrast to Western Australia, and indeed to most of this rather arid continent.  The dominant color is green, as lush forests dominate from the coastal areas up to the mountains.  Wildflowers are to be found in great diversity, but not in the dominating displays we see in the drier west.  Here, some of the most interesting plants have no flowers at all and live in the shade of the large eucalyptus trees that dominate nearly all of Australia's forests.Wildflowers are most evident in open habitats in the lower elevations.  Orchids, legumes, and members of the myrtle and protea families are prominent here as elsewhere.  I was only able to scratch the surface here, but this brief sample will hopefully inspire you to visit for yourself.  I don't have tools at my disposal to properly identify all the flowers displayed here, so any of you who know these plants, please don't hesitate to send me identifications or corrections.
This coastal heath is dominated by Allocasuarina

Allocasuarina nana has jointed green stems and  rudimentary leaves.  The flowers are 
tiny, and hidden in reddish cone-like clusters.
A ground orchid in the genus Glossodia.
 Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae) struggles to keep above shifting beach sand.

Boronia megastigma (Rutaceae) is a common shrub in the lowlands of New South Wales.

Isopogon anemonifolius is another member of the widespread southern hemisphere
family Proteaceae.  The bloom is a compound head of many small flowers.

The tubular red flowers of Epacris longiflora (Ericaceae) are similar to some of the heaths
in South Africa, and  are probably also pollinated by nectar-feeding birds.
Epacris breviflora has shorter, white flowers.

Dracophyllum secundum is a third member of the
Ericaceae blooming during my visit.
The bright blue flowers of Dampiera diversifolia (Goodeniaceae) fill a fertile space between rocks.
The legume, Kennedia rubicunda, creeps along the
Forests in the Snowy Mountains are dominated by tall Eucalyptus trees, with an
understory of tree ferns.

Despite their tropical appearance, the tree ferns of
the snowy mountains are cold-tolerant. These have
been coated with snow in a late season storm. 
The taller tree ferns are in the genus Cyathea, and the
shorter ones in the genus Dicksonia.
Tmesipteris is a relative of the common fern relative, Psilotum.

Tree ferns frame an inviting waterfall in the Snowy Mountains.

Many tree ferns in this area have been poached, their trunks hacked off for the horticultural tree fern fiber trade, or for
rooting and sale as specimen plants.
Anybody know what this is?
Or this?

Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Australia 3. The Incredible Carnivores

Carnivorous plants, such as the clump of
Cephalotus at the lower right, often grow
in boggy marshes.
Everyone is fascinated by carnivorous plants.  Earlier, I documented the species found in Florida, but the numbers there pale in comparison with those to be found in Australia. According to the epic 3-volume work on Australian carnivores by Allen Lowrie (1987, 1989,1998), there is one unique pitcher plant, Cephalotus follicularis, three species of Byblis, 19 species of Utricularia, one species of Nepenthes, and the one aquatic species, Aldrovanda vesicularis.   However, the king of carnivores, in Australia and the world as a whole, is the genus Drosera - the sundews.  Lowrie lists just over 100 species, many divided into subspecies. The number of recognized species has increased over the years.  Florabase now lists 110 species for the state of Western Australia alone, which is where the majority of Australian species reside.

Cephalotus follicularis is a pitcher plant endemic to Australia.  It is not related
to the pitcher plants in the genus Nepenthes
One of my goals in Australia was to see as many of the sundews as possible, and maybe even to see Cephalotus growing in the wild.  With only a couple of weeks in Australia in October of 1998, I of course could only skim the surface of this vast assortment of carnivorous plants.  I had to confine myself to the southwestern corner of the country for my primary exploration, but later had an outing in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales with my friend Heinar Streimann. Sundews were abundant everywhere, however.  Whenever I stopped my car beside the road, I had to step carefully to avoid these prolific, though often tiny plants.
Many species of Australian sundews
produce their trap leaves along upright
The bright orange flowers of Drosera hyperostigma are larger than the rosettes
of trap leaves that produce them.
And I did find Cephalotus!  At the Botanic Gardens in Perth, I asked where I might find them, and they referred me to a nurseryman who was propagating them for the hobbyist trade.  I visited his nursery and saw the baby pitcher plants being groomed for the market.  The owner was at first reluctant to reveal the location of a wild population, but I assured him that the only thing I would take was photographs, and he relented.

Drosera macrantha climbs by using its sticky traps to grab onto supporting shrubs.
After I drove to the location and climbed over a locked gate, it didn't take long to find them.  They were growing in the shallow water of a sedge-filled marsh, forming conspicuous reddish  clumps.  Similar in overall appearance to the tropical pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, and less so to our American Sarracenias, Cephalotus is unrelated to either and classified in a family of its own.  The pitchers form as specialized leaves intermixed with ordinary flat leaves, unlike those of Nepenthes, which typically  form at the end of each leaf.

Having satisfied my desire to see the unique pitcher plants, I focused on Drosera, and was soon flabbergasted by the variety of growth forms.  There were the tiny rosettes, which were the most familiar form, but also tall forms with leaves spread out along an upright stem.  Some of these were even vine-like, using their sticky trap leaves to adhere to the branches of shrubs as they climbed.  Later, in the mountains of the east, I would encounter the forking sundew, Drosera binata - a very different sort of beast!

Drosera menziesii is a climbing species with large
pink flowers.
There were all manner of colors in the flowers of the sundews, and sometimes the foliage as well.  I wished that I could have spent more time to document how the  differently colored flowers were pollinated.  I would guess that most were pollinated by small bees or flies, but  have no idea how many different species of pollinators would be involved.

Drosera glanduligera forms colonies of golden yellow rosettes with orange flowers.
I have done my best to identify all the species in my photographs, but some eluded me, and some are no doubt wrong.  As Lowrie himself stated, sundews are very difficult to identify.  So, I welcome corrections from anyone who is knowledgeable of this fascinating group of plants.  Enjoy!
Drosera erythrorhiza has flat, roundish leaves.
Drosera erythrocalyx has bright red leaves.

I have yet to identify this striking sundew, which forms a tangled mesh of red shoots
and an occasional bluish flower. It grows on granite seeps in D'Entrecasteaux National
Park at the southwestern corner of Australia.

Water seeping along this granite slope in D'Entrecasteaux National Park supports
species of  Drosera and Utricularia, along with other specialized shrubs and herbs.

Drosera binata (bottom of picture) grows along a stream in the Snowy Mountains of
New South Wales.

The leaves of Drosera binata split several times.  The ends of
the leaf segments unroll like fern fiddleheads as they grow.
Drosera adelae occurs along Australia's
east coast. The conspicuous sticky drops
at the tips of specialized hairs both
capture and digest insect prey.

References cited:

Lowrie, Allen. 1987, 1989, 1998,  Carnivorous Plants of Australia. Volume 1-3. University of Western Australia Press. Nedlands, Western Australia.

Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Australia 2. The Southwestern Corner

Kangaroo paws (Anigosanthus) pop up amongst
Rhodanthe chlorocephala (Asteraceae) in an area
that was recently burned.  Frequent natural fires 
remove dead wood, litter, and undergrowth.  
From Perth, I set out toward the southwestern corner of the Australian continent.  This is an area of chaparral vegetation, similar to that of southern California, the Cape Province of South Africa, or the Mediterranean region.  Rains come in the winter, leading to fantastic displays of flowers in the spring, which in Australia arrives in September.  Wild fires are common here, and a natural part of the chaparral's life cycle.  This returns nutrients to the soil and prevents more catastrophic fires. The plants native to such regions are adapted to survive and resprout quickly.

Many of the plant families represented are familiar, but the genera are often strange to those of us from the northern hemisphere.  Myrtceae, Fabaceae, Orchidaceae, and Asteraceae abound, along with the peculiar southern hemisphere family Proteaceae.  A really good guide can be found on-line at Florabase, a database of Western Australian wildflowers.

I stayed close to the coast for most of the trip.  The rocky cliffs and dunes here are covered with a lush cover of evergreen shrubs.  The cold southern ocean pounds away nearby.  We face the southern Indian Ocean on the way down, but as we round the bend of the continent, we face straight toward Antarctica.
Winter rain and coastal fog maintain an evergreen elfin forest along the
southwestern coast. 
A species of Carissa hugs a granite crest along the
Kunzea pulchella
There are few people in the countryside, and at every roadside stop I had to step carefully in order to avoid crushing sundews and orchids. I established my headquarters at a motel in the town of Albany and spent the next several days exploring the bush that was all around.  One highlight of the trip was the many carnivorous sundews in the area.  They were in fact so numerous that they will get a whole posting devoted mainly to them.  Enjoy the pictures and stay tuned!

Thysanotus patersonii, one of many species 
of fringe lily in the family Asparagaceae.  
This one is a vine.
Lavandula stoechas (Lamiaceae)
Pattersonia occidentalis
Pattersonia umbrosa

A species of Adenanthos, possibly A. barbigerus (Proteaceae)
found in Western Australia

The forests of southwestern Australia are dominated by Eucalyptus trees, as the are
in most parts of the continent.  Here the ground cover is dominated by large ferns
and a vining legume with orange flowers.

A member of the genus Euphorbia, so common in South Africa,
thrives here as well.

Caladenia latifolia, one of the many 
ground orchids in the woods of the southwest.

Calla lilies (Zantedeschia aethiopica) is one of many
 plants native to South Africa that has become a weed in

Adenanthos obovatus has a denser spike of flowers.

Scaevola aemula, in the family Goodeniaceae
creates lively patches of blue in the
spring landscape.
A close-up of Scaevola aemula flowers.

Dampiera is also in the Goodeniaceae, and easily confused with

One of the many legumes to be found in Western Australia.

Banksia coccinea is the most spectacular member of the Proteaceae in Australia. The flower heads consist of many tiny

Despite its compact flower heads, Actinodium 
cunninghamii is not a member of the sunflower family, 
but rather or the ubiquitous Myrtaceae. 

The yellow blossoms of Chamaexeros rise from the base of the fan-shaped cluster
of leaves. 

The various Australian species of Hibbertia superficially resembles our evening
primroses. but are members of  the family Dilleniaceae.

A species of Banksia overlooks the cold southern Ocean.

Another member of the Proteaceae, probably Adenanthos sericeus,
forms a conifer-like shrub.

The seed capsules of Banksia form from
the fusion of a number of separate flowers,
and only open after a fire.

Caladenia longicauda was common in the woods.
An unidentified member of the Myrtaceae, possibly
a Kunzea.

Verticordia grandiflora (Myrtaceae)
A species of Boronia (Rutaceae) grows in white
sand along the coast.
Another Boronia.